The gills are located in an opercular cavity covered by a flap of skin called theoperculum. It has a large surface area and a short distance for gas exchange to the blood capillaries. In a fish there are rows of gill filaments which are stacked like pages of a book. Tuesday, 7 june 2016 1 hour 30 minutes s162400u201 for examiners use only question maximum mark mark awarded 1. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. This topic exploration pack covers the as and a level biology a learning outcomes 3.
Kindly follow the instructions to unlock the download link s. In order to measure oxygen uptake and utilization a fish was placed in a box which. Gas exchange, transport, circulation and haemoglobin questions. Fish gas exchange is more difficult for fish than for mammals because the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water is less than 1%, compared to 20% in air. An annotated exemplar is an extract of student evidence, with a commentary, to explain key aspects of the standard. Oxygen intake for respiration, also carbon dioxide and, generally, ammonia elimination takes place across gasexchange surfaces, usually the gills in fish. The trachea is the cartilaginous structure that extends from the pharynx to the primary bronchi. Society for integrative and comparative biology, and college of. In fact, the difficulty of gas exchange as singlecelled organisms get larger is a factor which leads to larger organisms being multicellular. Written by an experienced teacher and examiner, cambridge igcse biology coursebook with cdrom third edition gives comprehensive and accessible coverage of the syllabus content. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide across a respiratory surface, as in the lungs, depends on the diffusion of these two gases. Fish gills are organs that allow fish to breathe underwater. I want to be active in my 1st year a level biology lessons.
The folded surfaces of the gills provide a large surface area to ensure that the fish gets sufficient oxygen. Gaseous exchange in fish takes place between the gills and the surrounding water. This is an advantage because it allows for greater oxygen saturation of the blood upwards of 80%. For level 2 biology referencing and how you do it should not influence your grade for achieved. Gas exchange between tissues and the blood is an essential function of the. Gaseous exchange in plants and animals form 2 biology.
This means that the net gas exchange from a leaf depends on the light intensity. Organisms exchange substances with their environment aqa as biology part 2 of 5 topics topics. Gaseous exchange biology notes for o level with questions. The basic mechanism of gas exchange is diffusion across a moist membrane. Surface area to volume ratio gas exchange digestion and absorption mass transport in animals mass transport in plants gas exchange. Gas exchange in plants test questions gcse biology. She kept four fish in a thermostatically controlled aquarium and measured the mean ventilation rate by counting movements of their gill covers.
The rows of gill filaments have many protrusions called gill lamellae. Fish gills feathery filaments with secondary lamellae lamellae 2 cells thick. Gce asa level 2400u201 new as biology unit 2 biodiversity and physiology of body systems p. Blood travels through the gills in the same direction as the water. Pdf handbook of fish biology and fisheries, volume 1. Unidirectional airflow in the lungs of alligators pdf. Relevant selection but not enough detail for further credit. Before this goes any further, a few clarifications.
Cash crops, livestock, fish and forestry accounted for 4. Cambridge igcse biology textbook pdf by dg mackean and hayward. The exchange of substances between the internal and external environments takes place at exchange surfaces. Insects have a tracheal system made up of many tracheae which branch into smaller tracheoles.
This resource is designed to be taught in 1 lesson and includes activities for students to work through, group work activities as well as lots of opportunities for assessment. Start studying aqa alevel biology gas exchange questions. To truly enter or leave an organism, most substances must cross cell plasma membranes. Alveoli in the lungs form the gas exchange surface in mammals. This goes over gas exchange in fish explaining the countercurrent principle and water flow across the lamella in gills. The handbook of fish biology and fisheries has been written by an international team of scientists and practitioners, to provide an overview of the biology of freshwater and marine fish species. In large multicellular organisms, the immediate environment of cells is some form of tissue fluid. Rate of diffusion surface area x concentration difference. Demonstrate understanding of adaptation of plants or animals to their way of life. Fish also have an efficient transport system within the lamellae which maintains the.
Gas exchange in bony fish alevel biology ocr, aqa, edexcel. Blood flow and water flow are separated only by the epithelium with. It is introduced by a chapter on the diversity of a group which has over 30,000 species, the largest within the vertebrates, describing the classification systems used for them and the variety of their habitats and morphology. Edexcel international asa level biology student book 1 ann fullick with frank sochacki oy. Exemplar for internal achievement standard biology level 2. The acinus is the structure in the lung where gas exchange occurs. The gills are located in the opercular cavity covered by a flap of skin called the operculum. Think about the gas exchange medium of fish, the advantage of it and then, why it wouldnt actually work in air. This book summarizes the basic features of living fish. Each gill consists of a number of thin leaf like lamellae projecting from a skeletal base brachial arch situated in. Fish use specialised surfaces called gills to carry out gas exchange. Although uganda is able to meet its domestic food needs, food products like wheat and rice are imported to. The technical terms highlighted above are important in describing what really is just a bunch of holes and tubes. Introduction to biology characteristics of living things quiz characteristics of.
Gas exchange in fish countercurrent principle and head. The only way we can achieve gas exchange is through our lungs which provide a large surface area and alveoli with short diffusion pathways. Cells, a level biology cells cell recognition and the immune system the immune response hydroxyl group oh. Igcse respiration and gas exchange lesson teaching. Start studying aqa a level biology gas exchange questions. Gcse biology respiration and gas exchange learning resources for adults, children, parents and teachers. Igcse respiration and gas exchange lesson free 10 keenu08 drugs igcse free popular paid resources. Gas exchange in plants plants respire all the time, but photosynthesis only happens during the day. Thereafter the physiology of fish is described and discussed initially by categories such as the outer boundary. Respiration and gas exchange gcse biology revision bbc. The fish gill is a multipurpose organ that, in addition to providing for aquatic gas exchange, plays.
Fish have developed specialised gasexchange organs called gills, which are composed of thousands of filaments. Gas exchange takes place at a respiratory surface a boundary between the. Gas exchange in fish revision for biology alevel youtube. Suggestions for practical activities are included, designed to help develop the required experimental skills, with full guidance included on the. Create your citations, reference lists and bibliographies automatically using the apa, mla, chicago, or harvard referencing styles. The kingston university stem outreach centre provides a. Unit 2 the variety of living organisms gas exchange.
Aqa biology alevel required practical 5 dissection of animal or plant gas exchange system or mass. There are some ethical issues with dissection, including the way in which the animals are raised and killed. A level biology edexcel pdf why would a climax community have high species diversity. New gas exchange in fish ocr, aqa, edexcel teaching.
The variety of living organisms gas exchange practice exam questions. Describe and explain how the countercurrent system leads to efficient gas exchange across the gills of a fish. Each gill consists of a number of thin leaf like lamellae projecting from a skeletal base brachial arch situated in the wall of the pharynx. Gills are highly folded, giving them a large surface area and maximising the efficiency of gas exchange. The folds are kept supported and moist by the water that is continually pumped through the mouth and over the gills. A correlation matrix of the levels of the five variables. Water flows over the filaments, and oxygen can diffuse down its concentration gradient the short distance between water and blood. Carbon dioxide must be available to plant cells, and oxygen gas must be removed. This goes over gas exchange in fish explaining the countercurrent principle and. Insect and fish gas exchange the a level biologist. Sometime download link s isare not visible on mobile devices, so if you face this issue, kindly do visit this page via laptopdesktop computer.
Alevel biology question paper unit 02 the variety of. Article pdf available in journal of experimental biology 56 january 1972 with 148 reads. On the gill filaments there are gill lamellae which has a network of capillaries on them. Each gill consists of a number of thin leaflike lamellae projecting from a skeletal base branchial arch. Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a.
Biology biol2 unit 2 the variety of living organisms. The gill filaments have many protrusions called gill lamellae. Blood in the gill capillaries flows in the oppositeacross direction to the water flowing. Biological molecules biology a level, a level gas exchange, alevel biology. A level aqa, ocr, edexcel a level biology gas exchange, transport, circulation. Pdf some aspects of gas exchange in tuna researchgate. Gas exchange is when oxygen is reached to the respiring cells and waste products are removed.
Comparisions cartilaginous bony have a skeleton made up of cartilage. It maintains the concentration gradient along the whole surface gas exchange surface lamella explain. All tracheae connect to the exoskeleton of the insect, so that air diffuses in and out through the spiracles. The high surface area is crucial to the gas exchange of aquatic organisms as. Aqa gce biology as award 1411 unit 2 gas exchange 6. Gills have numerous folds that give them a very large surface area. Free download cambridge international as and a level. Water flows across gills, separated by the pharyngeal gill clefts, and supported by gill arches, and which possess highly folded surfaces covered by a very thin epithelium. Outline how the countercurrent flow of blood and water results in efficient gas exchange in fish. Free download cambridge international as and a level biology coursebook 4th edition in pdf. Usually for biology referencing is important as you are using sources such as the internet notes or books.
This is the situation seen in the gills of fish and many other aquatic creatures. Gas exchange, transport, circulation and haemoglobin answers. Single celled organisms can exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide directly through their plasma membrane via diffusion. In this video we examine the gills as an example of an exchange surface. Good detail of absorption of water by osmosis into root hair cells. You may wish them to try to complete this without using their textbooks first. Fishes use outward extensions of their body surface called gills for gas. Fish have many different adaptation that give would give the fish large surface area for gas exchange.635 450 774 475 1166 122 923 256 1492 1039 125 621 334 1091 1036 1312 1282 449 439 581 717 673 896 821 305 1255 139 8 154 1397 1065 212